HTML/CSS/JavaScript for Web Pages that Include Math Equations Resources, Tips, Tricks

Putting all the pitfalls, tips and resources I need to know in one page.

Tips and Observations
Character References

The following are some commonly used math symbols and their character references. Bear in mind the glyphs' exact appearance depends on what font is being used by the browser. This page uses the typeface Open Sans, verdana, sans serif—in that order of priority depending on your browser's capability

Reference Glyph Name
Decimal Character
&#60 <
< less than
&#62 &gt;
> greater than
&#8810; &Lt;
much less than
&#8811; &Gt;
much greater than
&#8804; &le;
less than or equal
&#8805; &ge;
greater than or equal
&#8801; &equiv;
identical to
&#8776; &asymp;
almost equal to, approximately
&#8800; &ne;
not equal
&#178; &sup2; ² superscript 2 (squared)
&#179; &sup3; ³ superscript 3 (to the third power)
&#8730; &radic;
square root
&#176; &deg; ° degree
&#960; &pi; π pi
&#8734; &infin; infinity
&#8745; &cap; intersection
&#8746; &cup; union
&#8756; &therefore;
&#177; &plusmn;
± plus minus
&#247; &divide;
÷ division
&#215; &times; × multiplication
The following dot glyphs are or can be used as multiplication sign. (I've listed them in order of personal preference—beginning with my first choice. When magnified the dot operator (&sdot;) doesn't look round but squarish. This may be dependent on the typeface used.)
&#183 &middot;
· middle dot / interpunct
&#8226; &bull;
&#8901; &sdot; dot operator
HTML & CSS Validation