The following Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) selectors are all incorrectly interpreted by Microsoft Internet Explorer as if the first universal selector (asterisk) does not exist:

	* html        /* basic form */

	* * body      /* whitespace between asterisks is significant */

	* html body   /* higher specificity than either of above */

IE treats the above as if they were, correspondingly:


	* body

	html body

Thus far, this bug has been found in IE5/mac, IE5.15/mac, IE5.21/mac, IE5.0/Win, IE5.5/Win, and IE6/Win. It occurs whether the (X)HTML document is in quirks or standards mode. This bug is not present in Mozilla 0.9.9/Win, Moz1.0/Win, Opera5.02/Win, Opera6.01/Win, NS4.x/Win, Moz1.1/mac.

In valid HTML and XHMTL documents html is always the root element and body is always a child of the root element, and never a grandchild (or great grandchild). Therefore, the first 3 CSS selectors above should not match any element. Nonetheless, they are valid selectors.

If no other major CSS-aware browser that recognizes the universal selector misinterprets the above selectors this bug can be put to good use. By using any of the above erroneous selectors we can specify CSS rules that are meant only for IE. If necessary we can serve alternate rules to other browsers.

If this selector truly targets only IE it is a near converse of the Tantek ´┐Żelik Hack, specifically the "be nice to Opera" rule where the child selector is used to hide CSS declarations from IE, The star html selector shows the rule to IE only rather than hide it.

Some Examples

div id="normal"

This block should render as gray text on a light blue background on most CSS-aware browsers. No hacks are employed in the CSS rule for this block.

div id="msie"

This block should also render as gray text on a light blue background on browsers other than IE. IE, on the other hand, will display white italicized text against a navy blue background.

The CSS rules for the above are as follows

	div#normal, div#msie
		margin: 1em;
		padding: 1em;
		background: #def;
	/* the following rule is recognized only by IE */
	* html body div#msie	
		background: #009;
		color: white;
		font-style: italic;